An astronaut aboard the International Space Station captured this photograph of the north end of Lagoa Mirim, a 180-kilometer-long coastal lagoon straddling the border of Brazil and Uruguay.
Three rivers enter the lagoon (top), and rectangular agricultural fields (dark tones in the image) cover nearly all of the dry land in the scene. In contrast, the water has a bright grey, mirror-like appearance due to sunlight reflected off the surface directly back to the camera. This sunglint emphasizes the meandering courses of the rivers and reveals a group of recently inundated fields (top left) that are mainly used for rice farming.
Around 400,000 years ago, sea level was higher and the Atlantic Ocean covered this part of Brazil’s coast. The lagoons on the southern coast of Brazil, including Lagoa Mirim, were formed by the natural rise and fall of sea level over time, a process geologists call the transgression-regression cycle. Eventually the connection between the lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean closed up, and the main source of water became the rivers draining the Brazilian interior—making Lagoa Mirim a freshwater lagoon.
On both sides of the narrow part of the lagoon (center), ancient beach ridges are visible as a set of curved stripes and islands. Water circulation formed these ridges, which were built up over the past thousand years as waves and currents moved sediment along the shoreline.
Astronaut photograph ISS049-E-1116 was acquired on September 10, 2016, with a Nikon D4 digital camera using an 800 millimeter lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by a member of the Expedition 49 crew. The image has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by Andi Hollier, Hx5, and M. Justin Wilkinson, Texas State University, Jacobs Contract at NASA-JSC.
In the southeastern corner of the Baltic Sea lies a skinny stretch of land. Known as the Curonian (or Courland) Spit, it separates the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) from the Baltic Sea. Both the spit and the lagoon fall within the borders of Lithuania and Russia’s Kaliningrad Oblast.